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Girls' education in climate strategies: Opportunities for improved policy and enhanced action in Nationally Determined Contributions

This paper looks at how the intersecting vulnerabilities of age and gender shape the impact of climate change on girls and young women in particular and asks two questions:
1. Do climate strategies include adequate attention to social protection, and the inclusion and
empowerment of vulnerable groups?
2. Do climate strategies include sufficient attention to girls’ education, specifically, and to
inclusive, quality, gender transformative education, more broadly?
Based on an analysis of 160 Nationally Determined Contributions—country-level climate strategies to reduce emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change—and thirteen National Adaptation Plans, the answer is no. Overall, findings from this study suggest that the spirit of the Paris Agreement for climate action to attend to issues of fairness, equity, and justice is not translating into country-level climate strategies.


Brookings, UNICEF

Area of Work



Discussion / Working Paper


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